HyperLink   Optimization Principles and Application Performance Evaluation of a Multithreaded GPU Using CUDA
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  Shane Ryoo, Christopher I. Rodrigues, Sam S. Stone, John A. Stratton, Sain-Zee Ueng, Sara Sadeghi Baghsorkhi, Wen-mei Hwu
  Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, February 2008

GPUs have recently attracted the attention of many application developers as commodity data-parallel coprocessors. The newest generations of GPU architecture provide easier programmability and increased generality while maintaining the tremendous memory bandwidth and computational power of traditional GPUs. This opportunity should redirect efforts in GPGPU research from ad hoc porting of applications to establishing principles and strategies that allow efcient mapping of computation to graphics hardware. In this work we discuss the GeForce 8800 GTX processors organization, features, and generalized optimization strategies. Key to performance on this platform is using massive multithreading to utilize the large number of cores and hide global memory latency.  To achieve this, developers face the challenge of striking the right balance between each threads resource usage and the number of simultaneously active threads. The resources to manage include the number of registers and the amount of on-chip memory used per thread, number of threads per multiprocessor, and global memory bandwidth. We also obtain increased performance by reordering accesses to off-chip memory to combine requests to the same or contiguous memory locations and apply classical optimizations to reduce the number of executed operations. We apply these strategies across a variety of applications and domains and achieve between a 10.5X to 457X speedup in kernel codes and between 1.16X to 431X total application speedup.