HyperLink   Adaptive Cache Management for Energy-efficient GPU Computing
Publication Year:
  Xuhao Chen, Li-Wen Chang, Christopher I. Rodrigues, Jie Lv, Zhiying Wang, Wen-mei Hwu
  Proceedings of the 47th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture, December 2014
With the SIMT execution model, GPUs can hide memory latency through massive multithreading for many applications that have regular memory access patterns. To support applications with irregular memory access patterns, cache hierarchies have been introduced to GPU architectures to capture temporal and spatial locality and mitigate the effect of irregular accesses. However, GPU caches exhibit poor efficiency due to the mismatch of the throughput-oriented execution model and its cache hierarchy design, which limits system performance and energy-efficiency.

The massive amount of memory requests generated by GPUs cause cache contention and resource congestion. Existing CPU cache management policies that are designed for multicore systems, can be suboptimal when directly applied to GPU caches. We propose a specialized cache management policy for GPGPUs. The cache hierarchy is protected from contention by the bypass policy based on reuse distance. Contention and resource congestion are detected at runtime. To avoid oversaturating on-chip resources, the bypass policy is coordinated with warp throttling to dynamically control the active number of warps. We also propose a simple predictor to dynamically estimate the optimal number of active warps that can take full advantage of the cache space and on-chip resources. Experimental results show that cache efficiency is significantly improved and on-chip resources are better utilized for cache sensitive benchmarks. This results in a harmonic mean IPC improvement of 74% and 17% (maximum 661% and 44% IPC improvement), compared to the baseline GPU architecture and optimal static warp throttling, respectively.